Tag Archives: Rat lungs

New publication: Experimental methods for aerosol measurements in human airways

Experimental methods for flow and aerosol measurements in human airways and their replicas


Recent developments in the prediction of local aerosol deposition in human lungs are driven by the fast development of computational simulations. Although such simulations provide results in unbeatable resolution, significant differences among distinct methods of calculation emphasize the need for highly precise experimental data in order to specify boundary conditions and for validation purposes.

This paper reviews and critically evaluates available methods for the measurement of single and disperse two-phase flows for the study of respiratory airflow and deposition of inhaled particles, performed both in vivo and in replicas of airways. Limitations and possibilities associated with the experimental methods are discussed and aspects of the computational calculations that can be validated are indicated.

Graphical abstract

The review classifies the methods into following categories:

  1. point-wise and planar methods for velocimetry in the airways,
  2. classic methods for the measurement of the regional distribution of inhaled particles,
  3. standard medical imaging methods applicable to the measurement of the regional aerosol distribution and
  4. emerging and nonconventional methods.

All methods are described, applications in human airways studies are illustrated, and recommendations for the most useful applications of each method are given.


Frantisek Lizal, Jan Jedelsky, Kaye Morgan, Katrin Bauer, Jordi Llop, Unai Cossio, Stavros Kassinos, Sylvia Verbanck, Jesús Ruiz-Cabello, Arnoldo Santos, Edmund Koch, Christian Schnabel


Lizal, F., Jedelsky, J., Morgan, K., Bauer, K., Llop, J., Cossio, U., … & Koch, E. (2017). Experimental methods for flow and aerosol measurements in human airways and their replicas. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.


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Join the Molecular Imaging Workshop 2017

The second edition of the Molecular Imaging Workshop 2017 (MIW2017) will be held from 20th to 23rd November 2017 in San Sebastian, ...
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ETP Nanomedicine is the European Forum aiming at developping, supporting and promoting the field of nanotechnologies applied to medicine.
ETP Nanomedicine translates business, clinical interface, toxicology and characterisation, education and training, ethics and social impact to pursue its goal. Indeed, the organisation intent is to enable diagnostics and imaging, therapy and targeted delivery, and regenerative medicine.

Meet us at the ETPN2017 event

PneumoNP partners will attend the ETPNanomedicine event in Malaga, Spain from 17th to 19th October 2017. The European Technology Platform on ...
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FIGON Conference

Meet us at the FIGON Dutch Medicine Days

PneumoNP partners will attend FIGON Dutch Medicine Days in Ede, the Netherlands on 2nd and 3rd of October 2017. ...
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Imaging data reveals nanomedicines in lungs

An experiment carried out in Spain shows the distribution of an inhaled nanomedicine in rat lungs.

The PneumoNP project aims at developing new inhaled nanotherapeutic formulations to combat lung infection. The novel drug is comprised of an antibiotic carried by a nanoparticle. For this project, Spanish researchers from CIC BiomaGUNE track the location of the therapeutic particles in rat airways.

The use of nanoparticles in formulations is anticipated to lengthen the residence time of the drug in lungs. Indeed, it is expected to slow down and control the release of the active molecules. This prevents rapid metabolism and fast clearance. So, the therapeutic effects are expected to increase. Besides, the delivery by inhalation contributes to diminish undesired toxicological and off-target side effects. The results obtained in imaging experiments are essential to establish the appropriate dosage to be used in therapeutic experiments with infected animals and to predict therapeutic efficacy.

PET image

Positron emission tomography image showing the regional distribution of aerosolized nanocarrier-antibiotic formulation in rat lung.

The researchers have developed labeling methods to incorporate different radionuclides to the nanocarrier and the antibiotic. Thanks to the different physical properties of the radionuclides, they visualize the spatiotemporal distribution of the nanocarrier and the antibiotic separately. To achieve that they also used complementary in vivo imaging modalities.

From imaging experiments, relevant information can be determined quantitatively by using only few experimental animals and extremely refined procedures. The percentage of administered dose that reaches the lungs is important to assess the efficacy of the aerosol delivery method. The researcher looks also for the regional distribution of the antibiotic and the nanocarrier within the lungs. With the spatiotemporal imaging, they evaluated the residence time of the active drug and the nanocarrier in the lungs.


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