Tag Archives: Rat lungs

New publication: Experimental methods for aerosol measurements in human airways

Experimental methods for flow and aerosol measurements in human airways and their replicas

Abstract

Recent developments in the prediction of local aerosol deposition in human lungs are driven by the fast development of computational simulations. Although such simulations provide results in unbeatable resolution, significant differences among distinct methods of calculation emphasize the need for highly precise experimental data in order to specify boundary conditions and for validation purposes.

This paper reviews and critically evaluates available methods for the measurement of single and disperse two-phase flows for the study of respiratory airflow and deposition of inhaled particles, performed both in vivo and in replicas of airways. Limitations and possibilities associated with the experimental methods are discussed and aspects of the computational calculations that can be validated are indicated.

Graphical abstract

The review classifies the methods into following categories:

  1. point-wise and planar methods for velocimetry in the airways,
  2. classic methods for the measurement of the regional distribution of inhaled particles,
  3. standard medical imaging methods applicable to the measurement of the regional aerosol distribution and
  4. emerging and nonconventional methods.

All methods are described, applications in human airways studies are illustrated, and recommendations for the most useful applications of each method are given.

Authors

Frantisek Lizal, Jan Jedelsky, Kaye Morgan, Katrin Bauer, Jordi Llop, Unai Cossio, Stavros Kassinos, Sylvia Verbanck, Jesús Ruiz-Cabello, Arnoldo Santos, Edmund Koch, Christian Schnabel

Source

Lizal, F., Jedelsky, J., Morgan, K., Bauer, K., Llop, J., Cossio, U., … & Koch, E. (2017). Experimental methods for flow and aerosol measurements in human airways and their replicas. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.

__________________________________________________________________

Read more PneumoNP news

Major Classes of Antibiotics

Antibiotic resistance: Hope may come from small biotech companies

Discover Adenium, a small biotech company from Denmark. It develops the molecule that may become the next generation of antibiotics ...
Read More
Graphical abstract

New publication: Experimental methods for aerosol measurements in human airways

Experimental methods for flow and aerosol measurements in human airways and their replicas Abstract Recent developments in the prediction of ...
Read More
Meeting in Maastricht

PneumoNP: Exciting 6-month race ahead

With only six months to go before its end, the PneumoNP consortium gathered once more for their penultimate progress meeting ...
Read More

Imaging data reveals nanomedicines in lungs

An experiment carried out in Spain shows the distribution of an inhaled nanomedicine in rat lungs.

The PneumoNP project aims at developing new inhaled nanotherapeutic formulations to combat lung infection. The novel drug is comprised of an antibiotic carried by a nanoparticle. For this project, Spanish researchers from CIC BiomaGUNE track the location of the therapeutic particles in rat airways.

The use of nanoparticles in formulations is anticipated to lengthen the residence time of the drug in lungs. Indeed, it is expected to slow down and control the release of the active molecules. This prevents rapid metabolism and fast clearance. So, the therapeutic effects are expected to increase. Besides, the delivery by inhalation contributes to diminish undesired toxicological and off-target side effects. The results obtained in imaging experiments are essential to establish the appropriate dosage to be used in therapeutic experiments with infected animals and to predict therapeutic efficacy.

PET image

Positron emission tomography image showing the regional distribution of aerosolized nanocarrier-antibiotic formulation in rat lung.

The researchers have developed labeling methods to incorporate different radionuclides to the nanocarrier and the antibiotic. Thanks to the different physical properties of the radionuclides, they visualize the spatiotemporal distribution of the nanocarrier and the antibiotic separately. To achieve that they also used complementary in vivo imaging modalities.

From imaging experiments, relevant information can be determined quantitatively by using only few experimental animals and extremely refined procedures. The percentage of administered dose that reaches the lungs is important to assess the efficacy of the aerosol delivery method. The researcher looks also for the regional distribution of the antibiotic and the nanocarrier within the lungs. With the spatiotemporal imaging, they evaluated the residence time of the active drug and the nanocarrier in the lungs.

__________________________________________________________________

Read related PneumoNP news

illustration-scientifique-aerosol-v01-01

A step forward towards therapeutic aerosols

A delivery device for a breathable drug has been prototyped to test a new drug formulation. It aims to fight ...
Read More
Action of a M33 peptide on the membrane of a gram-negative bacteria

M33, the new option to fight severe pneumonia

The antimicrobial peptide M33 may be the long-sought substitute to treat difficult lung infections, like multi-drug resistant pneumonia. In 2013, ...
Read More
In vivo antibacterial activity of SET-M33L peptide in skin infection. Example of images of five animals at day 2.

New publication: In vitro and in vivo tests for a novel antibacterial drug candidate

In vitro and in vivo efficacy, toxicity, bio-distribution and resistance selection of a novel antibacterial drug candidate Abstract: A synthetic ...
Read More
PneumoNP concept

Heal pulmonary infections with nanosystems

Fine nanosystems carrying Meropenem and antimicrobial peptides to fight pulmonary infections are ready for in vitro tests. Before 2016 starts, ...
Read More